细胞外囊泡特征和分类

EVs have been classified into three major types, depending on their size and biogenesis prior to secretion:

apoptotic bodies (ApoBDs): vesicles of relatively large size (1–5 μm), variable in structure and composition; they are released by the blebbing process of cells undergoing apoptosis:

细胞外囊泡特征和分类

Deployment of extracellular vesicles to exchange biological molecules contained within a membrane boundary. (i) Budding of microvesicles off the plasma membrane (ectosomes or microvesicles); (ii) release of exosomes through the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the plasma membrane; (iii) blebbing off of larger vesicles, especially from apoptotic cells (apoptotic bodies). In the upper side there are representative transmission electron images: (A) microvesicles liberation (arrowheads), and (B) an apoptotic cell. In the bottom side: (C) inward invaginations of the MVB indicate the beginning of exosomes biogenesis, (D) MVB enclosing a lot of exosomes, and (E) MVB near to fuse with the membrane. n = nucleus.

microvesicles (MVs): diameter size of 150 nm–1 μm, they are shed directly by the outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane (Figure)
exosomes (EXOs): EVs with a diameter size ranging from 30 to 150 nm, with a density of 1.13 to 1.19 g/mL in sucrose; they originate from the late endosomal trafficking machinery. They are intracellularly produced into organelles called multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and ultimately, they are released into the extracellular milieu as a result of MVBs fusion with the plasma membrane (Figure C–E).

如若转载,请注明出处:https://www.ouq.net/2976.html

(0)
打赏 微信打赏,为服务器增加50M流量 微信打赏,为服务器增加50M流量 支付宝打赏,为服务器增加50M流量 支付宝打赏,为服务器增加50M流量
上一篇 07/08/2024 21:48
下一篇 07/08/2024

相关推荐

  • 常见医学检查与诊断意义

    验血 1.标本的采集:用微血管采血。 2.红细胞计数(RWC)正常值:男子约400~550万/立方毫米,女子约为350~500万/立方毫米,新生儿约600~700万/立方毫米。红细胞减少说明贫血及其程度;红细胞增多常见于肺部疾病、先天性心脏…

    科普 04/09/2022
    242
  • 丙型肝炎病毒生物学性状和感染检测

    丙肝病毒通过接触受污染的血液传播,例如共用针头,或使用未消毒的纹身器具。 大多数患者不会出现任何症状,还有一些患者可能会出现乏力、恶心、食欲不振以及眼睛和皮肤发黄症状。该病毒可引起急性和慢性肝炎,严重程度从持续数周的轻度疾病到严重的终生疾病…

    04/17/2020
    228
  • 2023诺贝尔医学或生理学奖:Katalin Karikó和Drew Weissman

    2023年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖共同授予Katalin Karikó和Drew Weissman以表彰他们在核苷碱基修饰方面的发现,这些发现促进针对 COVID-19 的有效 mRNA 疫苗得以开发出来。 两位诺贝尔奖获得者的发现对于在 20…

    10/02/2023
    668
  • GABAA受体

    GABAA受体(又称作γ-氨基丁酸A型受体)是一种离子型受体,而且是一类配体门控型离子通道。此通道的内源性配体是一种被称为GABA的神经递质。GABA是中枢神经系统里的一种主要的递质,虽然GABA在神经递质的释放过程中产生的是抑制性效应,但…

    科普 10/05/2023
    275
  • 反式脂肪酸的作用和过量危害

    反式脂肪酸又叫氢化植物油,市面上常见的代可可脂、起酥油、人造奶油、植脂末等,都属于反式脂肪酸。反式脂肪酸进入人体后难以被消化吸收,会一直在血液中,增加胆固醇,进而引发各种心血管疾病,还会影响记忆力。反式脂肪会提高胆固醇水平,增加患心脏病和中…

    03/05/2022
    136