SCI论文写作的常用替换词

  1. Big: gigantic, massive, colossal, enormous, immense, gargantuan, tremendous, titanic, giant, vast, large, huge, monster, bulky,

 

  1. many: numerous, myriad, infinite,

 

  1. forever (adv): infinity, eternal, timeless, everlastingundying, endless, changeless, perpetually…

 

  1. Small: minimum, diminutive, minute, petite, wee, undersized, teeny, tiny, little, petite

 

  1. Good: marvelous, fabulous, gorgeous, spectacular, outstanding, distinguished, remarkable, superb, incredible, unbelievable, out of this world, magnificent, charming, stunning, fantastic, terrific, excellent, great, wonderful, amazing, awesome

 

  1. Bad: awful, terrible, dreadful, defective, faulty, imperfect, inadequate, poor, substandard, unsatisfactory, harmful, damaging, deleterious, detrimental, hurtful, ruinous, unhealthy, evil, immoral…

 

  1. Clever: brilliant, knowledgeable, intellectual, intelligent, excellent, bright, smart

 

  1. Happy: delightful, delectable, elated, glad, overjoyed, pleased, jubilant, merry, joyful,

 

  1. Beautiful: charming, charismatic, attractive, gorgeous, pretty, endearing, sweet, adorable, eye-catching, handsome, hot, cute, good-looking, lovable, engaging…

 

  1. Fastswift, quick, rapid, speedy, hasty, nippy, like lightning,

 

  1. +hurry (v): hustle, rush, make haste, tear, step on it, dash, get a move on, step on it, scoot.

 

  1. Easy: simple, effortless, no trouble, painless, plain sailing, uncomplicated, undemanding, unproblematic, a piece of cake (informal), child’s play (informal),…

 

  1. Clear: obvious, apparent, blatant, comprehensible, conspicuous, distinct, evident, manifest, palpable, plain, pronounced, recognizable, transparent, intelligible, lucid, plain, understandable, uninvolved, simple, …

 

  1. Direct: bald, basic, frank, naked, plain, sincere, stark, straightforward, candid, forthright, outspoken….

 

  1. Difficult: hard, tricky, complicated, complex, intricate, involved, knotty, perplexing, puzzling, thorny…

 

  1. Angry: annoyed, cross, displeased, enraged, exasperated, incensed, infuriated, irate, mad (informal), livid (informal), berserk, outraged, resentful…

 

  1. Dangerous: perilous, breakneck, chancy (informal), hazardous, insecure, precarious, risky, unsafe, vulnerable

 

  1. Think (that): hold the (opinion/ belief/ position/stand point/idea) that, assume, believe, deem, reckon, argue, maintain, suppose, conceive, insist, be convinced, to my knowledge, personally, from my personal perspective, as far as I am concerned, from my point of view, from my angle, consider, conceive, perspective…

 

  1. Show: convey, reveal, express, corroborate, justify, imply, verify, clarify, signify, exemplify, illuminate, substantiate, demonstrate, elucidate, denote, characterized as, instruct, display, disclose, indicate, means, explain, give an/a example (reason, explanation) of, bear out, point out, point toward…

 

  1. Know: realize, comprehend, identify, distinguish, discern, notice, perceive, recognize,

 

see, understand, figure out, be acquainted with, be familiar with,

 

  1. Get: acquire, attain, acquire, achieve, obtain, gain “学习不用 learn

 

  1. Suggest: have a proposal in,

 

  1. Increase: magnify, expand, proliferate, mushroom, improve, enhance, advance…

 

  1. Impress: affect, inspire, engrave on, imprint of,

 

  1. Influence: impact, affect, guide, sway,

 

  1. Stop: halt, cease, conclude, desist, end, pause, put an end to, quit, refrain, shut down, terminate…

 

  1. Make: create, assemble, built, construct, form, manufacture; fore, cause, compel, constrain, drive, impel, induce, oblige, prevail, upon, require…

 

  1. Give: present, award, contribute, deliver, donate, grant, hand over, hand out, provide, supply

 

  1. Breakseparate, burst, crack, destroy, disintegrate, fracture, fragment, shatter, smash, snap

 

  1. Destroy: ruin, raze, annihilate, crush, demolish, devastate, eradicate, shatter, wipe out, wreck, obliterate, weaken, undermine…

 

  1. Happen: occur, come about, come to pass, develop, result, take place, transpire

 

  1. Problem: issue, question, case, trouble, difficulty, dilemma.

 

  1. Meeting: conference, discussion, assembly, conclave, congress, convention, gathering session, assignation, encounter, confrontation, argument, controversy…

 

  1. Study: learning, application, lessons, reading, research, school work, examination, analysis, consideration, contemplation, inspection, investigation, knowledge, scholarship…

 

  1. Advantage: benefit, dominance, precedence, profit, superiority, merit…

 

  1. Disadvantage: shortcoming, weakness, inconvenience, drawback, deficiency, flaw, handicap (also v. 妨碍), downside, limitation.

 

  1. Life: existence, conduct, life style, way of life

 

  1. important =crucial (extremely important),significant(amount or effect large enough to be important)

 

  1. common=universal, ubiquitous(if something is ubiquitous, it seems to be everywhere)

 

  1. abundant=ample(enough and usually extra), plentiful(enough for people’s needs and wants)

 

  1. stick=adhere, cling(hold on something tightly)

 

  1. neglect=ignore.(difference: neglect means someone has not paid enough attention to something; ignore means no attention.)

 

  1. near=adjacent(two things next to each other), adjoin(the same as adjacent)

 

  1. pursue=woo(man woos woman, old-fashioned), seek(if you seek sth, you try to obtain it. FORMAL)

 

  1. accurate=precise(precise is exact and accurate in all details), exact(correct in every detail)

 

  1. vague=obscure(unknown or known by only a few people)

 

  1. top=peak, summit

 

  1. competitor=rival, opponent(especially in sports and politics)

 

  1. blame=condemn(if you condemn something, you say it is very bad and unacceptable)

 

  1. opinion=perspective, standpoint(means looking at an event or situation in a particular way)

 

  1. fame=prestige(describe those who are admired), reputation

 

  1. build=erect(you can erect something as buildings, FORMAL), establish

 

  1. insult=humiliate(do something or say something which makes people feel ashamed or stupid)

 

  1. complain=grumble (complain something in a bad-tempered way)

 

  1. primary=radical (very important and great in degree), fundamental

 

  1. relieve=alleviate (alleviate means you make pain or sufferings less intense or severe)

 

  1. force=coerces into(coerce means you make someone do something s/he does not want to),compel

 

  1. enlarge=magnify(magnify means make something larger than it really is)

 

  1. complex=intricate(if something is intricate, it often has many small parts and details)

 

  1. Lonely=solitary (if someone is solitary, there is no one near him/her

 

  1. small=minuscule(very small), minute,

 

  1. praise=extol(stronger than praise), compliment(polite and political)

 

  1. hard-working=assiduous(someone who is assiduous works hard or does things very thoroughly

 

  1. difficult=arduous (if something is arduous, it is difficult and tiring, and involves a lot of efforts)

 

  1. poor(soil)=barren, infertile(used to describe the soil is so poor that plants cannot be planted on it)

 

  1. fragile=brittle, vulnerable(someone who is vulnerable is easily hurt emotionally or physically)

 

  1. show=demonstrate (to demonstrate a fact means to make it clear to people.)

 

  1. big=massive(large in size, quantity, or extent), colossal(use this word, you emphasize something’s large), tremendous

 

  1. avoid=shun(if someone shuns something, s/he deliberately avoid that something or keep away from it.)

 

  1. fair=impartial(someone who is impartial is able to give a fair opinion or decision on something.)

 

  1. attack=assault (physically attack someone), assail (attack violently

 

  1. dislike=abhor(abhor means you hate something to a extreme extent for moral reasons), loathe(dislike very much)!

 

  1. ruin=devastate (it means damage something very badly, or utterly destroy it.)

 

  1. always=invariably(the same as always, but better than always)4

 

  1. forever=perpetual(a perpetual state never changes), immutable(something immutable will never change or be changed)

 

  1. surprise=startle(it means surprise you slightly), astound(surprise you to a large degree),astonish(the same as astound)

 

  1. enthusiasm=zeal (a great enthusiasm), fervency (sincere and enthusiasm)#

 

  1. quiet=tranquil(calm and peaceful), serene(calm and quiet)!

 

  1. expensive=exorbitant(it means too expensive that it should be)

 

  1. luxurious=lavish(impressive and very expensive), sumptuous(grand

 

and

 

very

 

expensive

 

  1. boring=tedious(if you describe something tedious, you mean it is boring and frustrating)

 

  1. respect=esteem(if you esteem someone, you respect and admire him/her.

 

FORMAL)

 

  1. worry=fret(if you fret about something, you worry about it)

 

  1. cold=chilly(unpleasantly cold), icy(extremely cold)

 

  1. hot=boiling(very hot)

 

  1. dangerous=perilous(very dangerous, hazardous(dangerous, especially to people’s safety and health)/

 

  1. nowadays=currently

 

  1. only=unique(the only one of its kind), distinctive;

 

  1. stop=cease(if something ceases, it stops happening or existing)

 

  1. part=component(the components of something are the parts that it is made of)

 

  1. result=consequence(the results or effects of something)

 

  1. obvious=apparent, manifest

 

  1. based on=derived from (can see or notice them very easily)

 

  1. quite=fairly

 

  1. pathetic=lamentable(very uncomfortable and disappointing)

 

  1. field=domain(a particular field of thought, activities or interest)

 

  1. appear=emerge(come into existence)

 

  1. whole=entire(the whole of something)8

 

  1. wet=moist(slightly wet), damp(slightly wet), humid(very damp and hot)!

 

  1. wrong=erroneous(incorrect or partly correct)

 

  1. difficult=formidable

 

  1. change=convert(change into another form)

 

  1. typical=quintessential(this word means represent a typical example of something)

 

  1. careful=cautious(very careful in order to avoid danger), prudent(careful and sensible)

 

  1. ability=capacity, capability(the same as ability)

 

  1. strange=eccentric(if some one is eccentric, s/he behaves in a strange way, or

 

  1. /her opinion is different from most people)

 

  1. rich=affluent(if you are affluent, you have a lot of money)

 

  1. use= utilize (the same as use)

 

  1. dubious=skeptical(if you are skeptical about something, you have doubts on it. )

 

  1. satisfy=gratify (if you are gratified by something, it gives you pleasure and is faction)

 

  1. short=fleeting, ephemeral(if something is ephemeral, it lasts a short time)

 

  1. scholarship=fellowship

 

  1. angry=enraged(extremely angry)

 

  1. smelly=malodorous(used to describe an unpleasant smell)

 

  1. ugly=hideous(if something is hideous, it is very ugly or unattractive)#

 

  1. attractive=appealing(pleasing and attractive), absorbing(something absorbing can attract you a great deal)

 

  1. diverse=miscellaneous(a miscellaneous groups consists of many different kinds of things)

 

  1. disorder=disarray, chaos

 

  1. crazily=frantically(used to describe someone who behaves in a wild and uncontrolled way)

 

  1. rapid=meteoric(ATTENTION: meteoric is only used to describe someone achieves success quickly)

 

  1. ordinary=mundane(very ordinary and not at interesting or unusual)

 

  1. despite=notwithstanding(FORMAL)

 

  1. best=optimal(used to describe the best level something can achieve)/

 

  1. sharp=acute(severe and intense)

 

  1. unbelievable=inconceivable(if you deem something inconceivable, you think it very unlike to happen ^

 

  1. puzzle=perplex(something perplex someone means it confuses and worries him/her because he/she does not understand it)

 

  1. method=avenue(away of getting something done)

 

  1. famous=distinguished(used to describe people who are successful in their career)

 

  1. ancient=archaic(extremely old and extremely old-fashioned)

 

  1. decorate=embellish(embellish means make something look more attractive via decorating it with something else)/

 

  1. possible=feasible(if something is feasible, it can be done, made or achieved)

 

  1. so=consequently, accordingly

 

  1. rare=infrequent (doesn’t happen often

 

  1. greedy=rapacious(greedy and selfish)

 

  1. a couple of years several years 几年

 

  1. abundant plentiful/ample/sufficient/adequate adj. 丰富的

 

  1. a myriad of a multitude of/a great variety of/a wide range of/a number of

 

  1. increase accelerate v. 加快

 

  1. accessible available adj. 可接近的

 

  1. accordingly for that reason/ consequently/therefore adv. 因此

 

  1. account for explain/interpret 解释 * He accounts for the missing items as lost.

 

  1. accumulate collect/accumulate/enhance/augment/extend/increase/stretch v. 积 累,增加

 

  1. actually in reality/in fact adv. 实际上

 

  1. adhere stick v. 粘附

 

  1. adjunct addition n. 附属物

 

  1. administer manage vt. 管理

 

  1. admire think highly vt. 钦佩

 

  1. adorn decorate vt. 装饰

 

  1. advent arrival n. (指不寻常的人或事)到来

 

  1. adverse negative adj. 不利的

 

  1. advocate proponent/supporter n. 提倡者

 

  1. aesthetic artistic adj. 美学的

 

  1. aid help n./vt. 帮助

 

  1. alert wary/wit adj. 机警的

 

  1. allay reduce/roll back/decline vt.

 

  1. alter change/shift/transfer/convert vt.

 

  1. alternative option n. 另外的选择

 

  1. altogether completely/totally/wholly/utterly adv. 完全地

 

  1. amount sum n. 总和

 

  1. annihilate conquer/subjugate vt. 消灭

 

  1. antagonist enemy n. 对手

 

  1. anticipate look forward to vt. 预料

 

  1. apace with as fast as 齐头并进

 

  1. appealing attractive/intriguing/fascinating/inviting/tempting

 

  1. apply to be used for 应用,适用

 

  1. appreciation recognition n. 欣赏,品味

 

  1. apt appropriate/suitable adj. 适当的

 

  1. arduous difficult/tedious/laborious adj. 费力的,艰难的

 

  1. article object/item/stuff n. 物品

 

  1. ascend climb vt. 抬高,攀登

 

  1. assemble gether/put together/aggregate vt. 集合

 

  1. assortment variety n. 各种物品混合物

 

  1. assumption belief/hypothesis n. 假设,确定的想法

 

  1. attachment preference n. 喜欢,依恋

 

  1. attain achieve/acquire/obtain/gain/derive/get vt. 达到,获得

 

  1. attendant accompanying adj. 伴随的

 

  1. attire clothing n. 盛装,穿着

 

  1. attribute credit

 

  1. avail make use v. 有用

 

  1. avid for eager to/long for/look forward to 渴望

 

  1. avoid prevent/inhibit/hinder v. 避免,阻止

 

  1. barren infertile/fruitless adj. 贫瘠的

 

  1. besides in addition to/ moreover/furthermore adv. 除了还有

 

  1. bias prejudice/discrimination n. 偏见

 

  1. bind tie/attach v. 捆绑,使结合

 

  1. boost raise/enhance vt. 增加,提高

 

  1. bound limit n. 范围,限制

 

  1. boundary dividing line n. 分界线

 

  1. break departure from 破裂

 

  1. brittle fragile/easily broken adj. 易碎的

 

  1. burning flaming/scorch adj./n 燃烧的,燃烧

 

  1. calculate determine/numerate v. 计算

 

  1. carry support/sustain/uphold v. 支持,支撑

 

  1. carry on continue 继续

 

  1. cause bring about/lead to/induce/result in v. 导致,引起

 

  1. cease stop v. 停止,终止

 

  1. celestial astronomical adj. 天体的,天上的

 

  1. characteristic character/quality n. 特征

 

  1. charisma personal magnetism n. 个人魅力

 

  1. chronicle describe v. 记述

 

  1. classify categorize vt. 分类

 

  1. clear unobstructed adj. 畅通的

 

  1. clue information n. 线索,信息

 

  1. cluster group/concentrate n./v. 串,群,聚集,丛生

 

  1. coarse rough/crude adj. 粗糙的

 

  1. coin create/spawn vt. 创造

 

  1. coincide occur at the same time as/correspond vi. (事情)等同时发生,相巧合

 

  1. Our vacations coincided, so we traveled together.

 

  1. Your account of the accident has little correspondence with the story.

 

  1. collectively by group together adv. 集体地,共同地

 

  1. combine incorporate/fuse v. 联合

 

  1. come of age establish itself 达到法定年龄,确立自身地位

 

  1. comparable similar/equivalent adj. 相当的,类似的

 

  1. compel force vt. 强迫,使不得不

 

  1. competition struggle n. 竞争

 

  1. complimentary falttering adj. 称赞的

 

  1. component part/ingredient/composition/constituent/element 部分

 

  1. compose write vt. 作曲

 

  1. comprise consist of/constitute/make up

 

  1. conceal cover/occult/hide/veil/ensconce vt.

 

  1. conclusive definitive/decisive adj. 决定性的

 

  1. concomitant in conjunction with adj. 伴随的

 

  1. concrete specific adj. 具体的,实体的

 

  1. configuration arrangement n. 轮廓,构型

 

  1. confine limit/ restrict/fix vt. 限制,固定

 

  1. confirm uphold/sanction/ratify/prove/justify vt.

 

  1. conflicting opposing adj. 相冲突,相矛盾的

 

  1. conjectural based on guessing adj. 推测的

 

  1. connect relate v. 连接,联系

 

  1. consequence result/outcome n. 结果,后果

 

  1. conserve store/retain/preserve/maintain vt.

 

  1. considerable large/substantial/much/great/vast

 

  1. consistent constant adj. 一致的,稳定的

 

  1. consort associate vi. 陪伴,结交

 

  1. conspicuous noticeable/spectacular/marked/pronounced/apparent/obvious/striking adj. 显著的,引人注目的

 

  1. consume eat vt. 消费,消耗

 

  1. contemporary existing adj. 当代的,现代的

 

  1. convergence gathering n. 聚集

 

  1. corresponding similarly adv. 相应地,对应地

 

  1. count weigh v. 有价值,有分量

 

  1. counteract negate vt. 抵消

 

  1. counterpart version n. 对应的人或物

 

  1. crisscross move back and forth vi. 交叉往来

 

  1. crucial fatal/vital/significant/important/key/remarkable/meaningful adj. 重要的

 

  1. cumbersome burdensome/heavy/ponderous adj. 笨重的,难处理的

 

  1. dampen moisten vt. 使潮湿

 

  1. daring bold/fearless adj. 大胆的,勇敢的

 

  1. deadly extreme/exceeding/intense adj. 极度的,强烈的

 

  1. deft skilled/experienced/skillful/expert adj. 灵巧的,熟练的

 

  1. deliberate careful/meticulous adj. 审慎的,深思熟虑的

 

  1. demand require/call for/request/mandate v. 要求

 

  1. demise death n. 死亡

 

  1. demonstrate show/reason/elaborate vt. 演示,论证

 

  1. dense thick adj. 密集的,浓厚的

 

  1. depend on/upon rely on/hinge on(upon) 依靠,取决于

 

  1. depict portray/sketch/draw vt. 描绘,描写

 

  1. depress lower vt. 压低

 

  1. derived from based on 来源于

 

  1. detect feel/sense vt. 察觉,探测

 

  1. detectable measurable/apparent adj. 可发觉,可查明的

 

  1. devastate ruin/destroy vt. 毁坏

 

  1. devote dedicate/specialize in vt. 投身于,用于

 

  1. dictate determine vt. 规定,确定

 

  1. disaster catastrophe/tragedy/misfortune n. 灾难,不幸

 

  1. discard get rid of vt. 丢弃

 

  1. discrete separate/scattered adj. 离散的,不连续的

 

  1. dispute argument/debate n. 争论,纠纷

 

  1. disseminate spread/impart/peddle/bruit vt. 传播,宣扬

 

  1. distinct separate/different/distinguishing/diverse/dissimilar/varied

 

  1. distinguish differentiate vt. 区别,辨认

 

  1. divergence difference/dissimilarity n. 分歧

 

  1. document record vt. 证明,文件记载

 

  1. domain field/region/realm/scope/extent n. 领域,范围

 

  1. dominate be pervalent in/govern vt. 统治,支配

 

  1. dramatic striking/drastic/radical/severe adj. 戏剧性的

 

  1. draw attract/lure/entice vt. 吸引,引诱

 

  1. durable long-lasting adj. 持久的

 

  1. dwelling house n. 住处

 

  1. eager enthusiastic adj. 渴望的

 

  1. efficiency effectiveness n. 功率

 

adj. 明确的,不同

 

  1. elaborate detailed/ornate/pinpoint/exhaustive adj. 详尽的,精心(过分)装饰的

 

  1. elevate promote vt. 举起,使上升

 

  1. elicit bring out vt. 引出,得出

 

  1. embrace welcome vt. 拥抱,欣然接受

 

  1. emerge appear vi. 出现,浮现

 

  1. emit give off vt. 发出,放射

 

  1. emphasize stress/underscore vt. 强调,着重

 

  1. employ use vt. 使用

 

  1. enable allow/help/make possible v. 使能够,使可能

 

  1. enactment performance n. 设定,制定

 

  1. encompass include/contain/embody vt. 包括,包含

 

  1. endless continuous adj. 无止境的

 

  1. engage in carry on 从事于

 

  1. entire whole adj. 全部的

 

  1. entity object n. 实体,存在

 

  1. equivalent interchangeable adj. 相等的,等同的

 

  1. eradicate eliminate/uproot vt. 根除,杜绝

 

  1. essential fundamental/basic/chief/primary adj. 绝对必要的,根本的

 

  1. establish create v. 设立,创作

 

  1. estimate judge vt. 估计

 

  1. evidence indicate/testimony vt./n. 证明,表明,证据

 

  1. evolution development n. 发展,演变

 

  1. evolve develop v. 进化,发展

 

  1. exalted

 

  1. excavate

 

superior/optimal/best adj. 崇高的,高贵的 dig out vt. 挖出

 

307 excellent outstanding/splendid/brilliant/exceptional/remarkable/distinguished/prominent/famous adj. 优良的,杰出的

 

  1. execute administer/bring into effect/implement/carry out vt. 实施,执行

 

  1. exert cause vt. 行使,施加

 

  1. exorbitant expensive/costly adj. (价格)昂贵的

 

  1. expendable unprofitable/unnecessary adj. 不必要的,无利可图的

 

  1. extol praise/tout vt. 赞美

 

  1. extract remove vt. 拔出,榨取

 

  1. fabricate make/construct v 制作,装配

 

  1. faction side n. 派别,宗派

 

  1. faraway remote/over great distances adj. 遥远的

 

  1. fashion create vt. 造成

 

  1. favored preferred adj. 首选的,优惠的

 

  1. feed nourish/rear/raise v. 喂养,饲养

 

  1. firm hard/steadfast adj. 坚定的,结实的

 

  1. fixture commonplace object n. 固定设备

 

  1. flourish thrive/grow well vi. 繁荣,茂盛

 

  1. forage feed n. 饲料

 

  1. foremost leading adj. 最先的,最重要的

 

  1. formidable difficult/powerful/overwhelming/staggering

 

adj. 可怕的,艰难的

 

  1. frame pose vt. 提出,制定

 

  1. framework structure n. 构架,骨架

 

  1. free release/unravel v. 解除,释放

 

  1. frustrate thwart v. 挫败

 

  1. fuel source of energy n. 能源,燃料

 

  1. functional usable adj. 功能的,有用的

 

  1. furnish provide vt. 装备,提供

 

  1. gambit maneuver/tactic/policy/calculated risk/strategy

 

  1. gap opening/separation n. 缺口

 

  1. glance brief look/browse n. 瞥视,浏览

 

  1. glowing shining/sparkling adj. 白热的

 

  1. goal end/destination/purpose/intent n. 目标

 

  1. gradually by degrees adv. 逐渐地

 

  1. graphic vivid/dramatic adj. 图解的,生动的

 

  1. grumble complain/repine v. 抱怨

 

  1. guarantee ensure/pledge/assure vt. 保证

 

  1. hardiest most vigorous adj. 最强壮的

 

  1. heart center/hub n. 中心

 

  1. hemisphere sides n. 半球,半脑

 

  1. henceforth form that time on 从此以后 n. 策略,谋略

 

  1. herald announce/declare/proclaim/note vt. 宣布..消息

 

  1. hinterland region n. 腹地

 

  1. identical exactly alike adj. 同一的,完全相同的

 

  1. ignite set on fire/spark v. 点燃

 

  1. imitate copy vt. 模仿

 

  1. immunity protection n. 免疫性

 

  1. immutable unchangeable adj. 不变的

 

  1. imperceptibly subtly adv. 不可察觉地,极缓慢地

 

  1. implement tool/apparatus/instrument n. 工具,乐器

 

  1. implication significance/meaning n. 意义

 

  1. impose demand vt. 强加于

 

  1. inaccessible unreachable adj. 难达到的

 

  1. inception beginning/outbreak n. 开端,发作

 

  1. incinerate burn up v. 烧成灰烬

 

  1. incise carve/cut/chop/slice/shear vt. 切割

 

  1. inclination preference n. 倾向,嗜好

 

  1. incriminate blame/accuse vt. 归罪,控告

 

  1. indigence poverty n. 贫乏,穷困

 

  1. induce cause/court/lure vt. 诱使,促使

 

  1. influx arrival n. 流入,汇集

 

  1. initiate start vt. 开始,发起

 

  1. innovation new idea/reformation n. 改革,创新

 

  1. insignificant unimportant/trivial adj. 不重要的

 

  1. instance case n. 实例,例证

 

  1. insult affront/humiliate vt. 侮辱

 

  1. integral essential adj. 构成整体必需的

 

  1. intermittent periodic adj. 间歇的,断断续续的

 

  1. interval period n. 间隔时间

 

  1. intervention influence/interference n. 干涉,介入

 

  1. intimate close adj. 亲密的

 

  1. intricate complex adj. 复杂的,总和的

 

  1. invade move into/aggress vt. 侵略

 

  1. lament complain about vt. 悲痛

 

  1. lie be located v. 位于

 

  1. load weight/task n. 重担,重任

 

  1. location place/spot/site/locality n. 位置,地方

 

  1. locate pry off vt. 找出定位

 

  1. magnify intensify vt. 放大,扩大

 

  1. major principal adj. 主要的,大型的

 

  1. manage preside over/oversee v. 负责,统辖

 

  1. margin edge n. 边缘

 

  1. means method n. 方法

 

  1. merely only/barely/solely adv. 仅仅

 

  1. meteoric rapid adj. 迅速的

 

  1. minuscule tiny adj. 极小的

 

  1. misconcept misapprehend/misconceive vt.误解

 

  1. modify revise/change vt. 修改

 

  1. momentarily briefly adv. 短暂的

 

  1. monopolize dominate/preempt v. 垄断,独占

 

  1. motif thesis/design n. (作品)主题,主旨

 

  1. mundane ordinary/mediocre adj. 平常的,普通的

 

  1. myriad many/infinite adj. 无数的

 

  1. the myriad activity of the new land/ myriad topics

 

  1. nap sleep briefly n. 打盹

 

  1. take a nap

 

  1. nascent immature/fledge less adj. 新生的

 

  1. nevertheless however adv. 然而

 

  1. norm standard/criteria n. 标准,规范

 

  1. note observe v. 注意到

 

  1. notwithstanding despite/in spite of prep. 尽 管 “* The teams played on, notwithstanding the rain. / We proceeded, notwithstanding./ Notwithstanding his objections the marriage took place / She went swimming yesterday notwithstanding (that)her mother told her not to.”

 

  1. noxious harmful/deleterious adj. 有害的

 

  1. obstacle impediment n. 妨碍

 

  1. oscillate swing v. 摇摆震荡

 

  1. outline summarize v. 总结,概括

 

  1. partitioning division n. 划分

 

  1. peak maximum/apogee/zenith/vertex n. 顶点,最高点

 

  1. peculiar strange/fantastic/exotic adj. 奇异的

 

  1. penetrate go through/infiltrate v. 穿透,渗透

 

  1. perfect ideal adj. 完美的,理想的

 

  1. period era/epoch n. 时代

 

  1. periphery outer edge n. 外围

 

  1. permeate spread through/saturate/soak

 

  1. persist continue vi. 坚持,持续

 

  1. pertinent relevant adj. 相关的,切题的

 

  1. phenomena events n. 现象

 

  1. pick up follow/trace v. 寻找,寻路

 

  1. picture image n. 图片

 

  1. pit hole n. 坑,地坑

 

  1. plunge drop vi. 跳进,投入

 

  1. pore hole n. 小孔,气孔

 

  1. portable easily moved adj. 便携的

 

  1. position job n. 职务

 

  1. postulate suggest vt. 要求,假设

 

  1. potential possible adj. 可能的,潜在的

 

  1. precarious uncertain/unstable/insecure

 

  1. preceding prior to/ahead of 在前的

 

  1. predecessor ancestor/antecedent n. 前辈,前任

 

  1. preferable favored adj. 更好的,更可取的

 

  1. preoccupation involvement n. 当务之急,全神贯注的状态

 

  1. presumably probably adv. 据推测,可能

 

  1. prevail dominate v. 成功,统治

 

  1. prevailing most frequent/dominant adj. 流行的,盛行的

 

  1. prized valued/precious adj. 贵重的

 

  1. probe explore v. 调查研究

 

  1. progressive forward looking adj. 前进的,累进的

 

  1. projecting protruding adj. 突出的,伸出的

 

  1. prolific productive/fruitful adj. 多产的,多结果

 

  1. prospect possibility n. 前景,期望

 

  1. prototype model n. 原型

 

  1. puncture pierce vt. 刺穿,戳破

 

  1. pursue chase v. 追赶

 

  1. rather than instead of 相反的

 

  1. raw unprocessed/crude adj. 未加工的

 

  1. readily easily adv. 容易地,欣然地

 

  1. realization awareness/consciousness n.

 

  1. reap accept vi. 收割,收获

 

  1. reckless irresponsible/rude/imprudent adj. 轻率的,鲁莽的

 

  1. recruit enlist vt. 征兵

 

  1. refreshing unusual adj. 使人耳目一新

 

  1. regardless of no matter what 不论,不管

 

  1. reliance dependence n. 依赖,依靠的人或物

 

  1. renounce reject/refuse/turn down/decline v. 拒绝,声明放弃

 

  1. representative typical adj. 典型的,有代表性的

 

  1. reputation good name n. 名声

 

  1. resemble be similar to vt. 像,类似

 

  1. resourcefulness ingenuity n. 足智多谋

 

  1. revere respect vt. 尊崇,尊敬

 

  1. revitalize bring new life to v. 新生

 

  1. robust strong adj. 强壮的

 

  1. rot decay/erode/decompose v. 腐烂

 

  1. rotate alternate/turn v. 轮流,(使)旋转

 

  1. roughly approximately adv. 概略地,大致地

 

  1. rudimentary undeveloped adj. 初步的,未发育完全的

 

  1. run operate/manipulate v. 操纵

 

  1. rupture burst/break out v. 破裂,裂开

 

  1. rushing rapid adj. 急流的

 

  1. sanitation health n. (公共,环境)卫生

 

  1. scale measure/grade/rank/order/caste n.

 

  1. scarce rare adj. 缺乏的,稀有的

 

  1. scatter irregularly distribute v. 分散 等级,规模

 

  1. score musical compositions n. 乐谱

 

  1. scurry rush v. 急赶

 

  1. secondary ancillary adj. 次要的,伴随的

 

  1. secure safe adj. 安全的

 

  1. sedentary inactive adj. (人或动物)土生,不移栖的

 

  1. sentiment opinion/viewpoint/standpoint n. 意见,观点

 

  1. serve as function as v. 充当

 

  1. set establish v. 确定,安置

 

  1. settle decide v. 决定,解决

 

  1. settled stable/standing/not flowing adj. 固定的

 

  1. shield protect/safeguard v. 保护

 

  1. suspicion doubt n. 怀疑

 

  1. skyrocket increase rapidly/boost/increase sharply/accelerate/surge

 

  1. * The prices skyrocketed

 

  1. snap break v. 突然折断

 

  1. solemn serious adj. 庄严的,肃穆的v. 挑选出

 

  1. sort out separate/pick out/select/opt for

 

  1. span cover vt. 跨越

 

  1. spark bring out vi. 发起,激起

 

  1. speculate hypothesize v. 推测,沉思

 

  1. standard customary adj. 标准的

 

  1. staple basic element/necessities n. 主要产品,日常必需品 vi. 猛涨

 

  1. stimulate encourage/ferment/foster/spur/stimulate/incite/urge v. 刺激,激发

 

  1. story level n. 楼层

 

  1. strain stress v. 过滤,拉紧

 

  1. strength basis n. 实力,基础

 

  1. stringent strict adj. 严厉的

 

  1. strive try/struggle v. 奋斗,努力

 

  1. stubborn hard to deal with/adamant adj. 顽固的,固执的

 

  1. subsidy financing n. 补助金

 

  1. subtle slight adj. 微妙的,细微的

 

  1. succinct concise adj. 简明的

 

  1. sufficient adequate adj. 足够的

 

  1. sumptuous luxurious adj. 奢侈的

 

  1. supplant replace/substitute vt. 替代

 

  1. supplement extension/supply n. 补充

 

  1. supposedly seemingly adv. 按说,应该

 

  1. supremacy dominance n. 至高无上的权利

 

  1. supreme extraordinary/most outstanding adj. (权利,级别)至高的,最重要的

 

  1. surpass overtake vt. 超越,胜过

 

  1. susceptible subject adj. 易受影响的

 

  1. suspend hang vt. 吊,悬挂

 

  1. swiftness rapidity n. 迅速,敏捷

 

  1. symmetrical proportionally balanced adj. 对称的

 

  1. tangle twist v. 拆绕,处于混乱状态

 

  1. teem with be full of 充满

 

  1. telling challenging adj. 有效的,有力的

 

  1. thereby by that means adv. 因此,从而

 

  1. tolerate endure/bear vt. 忍受,容许

 

  1. trace imprint n. 痕迹

 

  1. transition change n. 转变,过渡

 

  1. trap entomb v. 捕捉,陷害

 

  1. typify characterize vt. 为典型

 

  1. ultimately eventually/finally/in the end

 

  1. uncover expose/reveal/discover/unravel v.

 

  1. undergo experience v. 经历,遭受

 

  1. undoubtedly certainly/definitely/doubtless

 

  1. unique particular/singular adj. 独一无二的

 

adv. 最后 发现,揭示

 

adv. 毋庸置疑地

 

  1. unplanned by chance/occasional adj. 偶然的,碰巧的

 

  1. unprecedented never seen before adj. 空前的

 

  1. unpredictable random adj. 不可预知的

 

  1. unrestricted unlimited adj. 没有限制的

 

  1. unsubstantiated unverified adj. 未经证实的

 

  1. usher in begin 引发,产生

 

  1. utilize exercise v. 利用

 

  1. varied different adj. 杂色的,各式各样的

 

  1. venture endeavor n. 冒险(事业)

 

  1. vessel craft n.

 

  1. vestige evidence/relic/remnant

 

  1. virtually actually adv. 事实上

 

  1. wider more extensive/broader adj. 宽广的

 

  1. witness observe vt. 目击

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